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EVD 001: Biodiversity: from organisms to ecosystems

Properties and factors that establish and maintain diversity at different levels of organization in ecology: organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, landscapes and biomes. 1-Concepts of organisms and populations. 2-Independent population growth and density-dependent. 3-Distribution of populations in space and time (time series). 4-Minimum viable population size. 5-Factors of population regulation. 6-Concepts of communities and ecosystems. 7-Importance of abiotic and biotic factors in community structure. 8-Null models in community ecology. 9-Dynamics of communities: ecological succession. 10-Flow of energy, structure and functioning of ecosystems. 11-Biological diversity in communities and ecosystems. 12-Concepts of landscapes and biomes (geographical scale). 13-Structure of landscapes. 14-Fragmentation, metapopulations and metacommunities. 15-Biogeographical regions and provinces. 16-Macroecology. 17-Diversity in landscapes and geographic scale.

TPI: 6-0-12


Begon, M.; Mortimer, M.; Thompson, D. J. 1996. Population ecology: a unified study of animals and plants, 3 ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Begon, M.; Townsend, C. R.; Harper, J. L. 2007. Ecologia: de indivíduos a ecossistemas, 4 ed. Artmed, Porto Alegre.

Forman, R. T. T. & Godron, M. 1986. Landscape ecology. Wiley, London.

Gaston, K.; Blackburn, T. 2000. Pattern and process in macroecology. Blackwell, London.

Gotelli, N. J. 2007 Ecologia. Ed. Planta, Londrina. 

Morin, P. J. 2011. Community ecology, 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

Odum, E. & Barret, G. W. 2005. Fundamentals of ecology. 5th ed. Brooks/Cole.

Ricklefs, R. E.; Miller, G. L. 1999. Ecology. W. H. Freeman & Co., New York.

Rockwood, L. L. 2006. Introduction to population ecology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Rosenzweig, M. L. 1995. Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University, Cambridge.

Turner, M. G.; Gardner, R. H.; O’Neill, R. V. 2001. Landscape ecology in theory and practice: pattern and process. Springer, New York.

Vandermeer, J. H. & Goldberg, D. E. 2003. Population ecology: first principles. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

EVD 002: Evolutionary Ecology

Evolutionary ecology is the study of evolutionary processes that operate on the interaction between populations and environmental factors (biotic and abiotic), contributing to the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. Topics covered: Basic concepts in evolution. Vital cycles. Foraging. Sexual Selection. Evolution of ecological interactions. Evolution and biological conservation. 1-Basic concepts in Evolution = Natural Selection, Genetic Drift, Darwinian Aptitude (“fitness”), Adaptation and Speciation; 2-Vital cycles = Conflicting Demands (“trade-offs”): Growth X Longevity X Reproduction, Age X Size at Maturity, Number X Size of Descendants, Senescence, Phylogenetic Restrictions; 3-Behavioral Ecology: Foraging. Group life. Fight and evaluation. Introduction to Game Theory; 4-Sexual Selection = Mating Systems, Parental Care; 5-Ecological interactions = Coevolution, Competition, Predation and Parasitism, Cooperation and Mutualism, Societies; 6-Evolution and biological conservation = subsidy for preservationist actions.

TPI: 6-0-12


Alcock, J. 2010. Comportamento animal: uma abordagem evolutiva. Artmed, Porto Alegre.

Begon, M.; Mortimer, M.; Thompson, D. J. 1996. Population ecology, 3 ed. Blackwell, Oxford.

Begon, M.; Townsend, C. R.; Harper, J. L. 2007. Ecologia: de indivíduos a ecossistemas, 4 ed. Artmed, Porto Alegre.

Danchin, E.; Giraldeau, L. A.; Cézilly, F. 2008. Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary perspective on behaviour. Oxford University Press, Cambridge.

Del-Claro, K. 2010. Introdução à ecologia comportamental. Technical Books, Rio de Janeiro

Fox, C. W.; Roff, D. A.; Fairbairn, D. J. 2001. Evolutionary ecology: concepts and case studies. Oxford University Press, New York.

Freeman, S; Herron, J. C. 2009. Análise evolutiva. 4 ed. Porto Alegre, Artmed.

Futuyma, D. J. 2009. Biologia evolutiva, 3 ed. FUNPEC, Ribeirão Preto.

Krebs, J. R.; Davies, N. B. 1996. Introdução à ecologia comportamental. Atheneu, São Paulo.

Pianka, E. R. 1994. Evolutionary ecology, 5 ed. Harper Collins, New York.

Ricklefs, R. E.; Miller, G. L. 1999. Ecology. W. H. Freeman & Co., New York.

Ridley, M. 2006. Evolução, 3 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

Stearns, S. C.; Hoekstra, R. F. 2003. Evolução: uma introdução. Atheneu, São Paulo.

EVD 003: Phylogenetic systematics

History and philosophical bases of Systematics. Phylogenetic inference methods and concepts. Systematic History; Importance of the concept of monophyletism for comparative biology; Schools of systematic thought; Concepts of homology, homoplasy, character, apomorphy, plesiomorphy; Character types (binary, multistate, ordered and unordered); Philosophical bases of the different methods of phylogenetic inference; Character encoding; External groups, rooting and polarization; Character optimization, Matrix encoding and assembly. Congruence analysis; Search algorithms (exact and heuristic); Introduction to phylogenetic analysis software; Tree consensus; Tree length, consistency and retention indexes; Support measures: bootstrap, jacknife, Bremer support; Sensitivity analysis; Role of missing values; Paleontological data. Morphological data versus molecular data. Ontogeny data; Weighing characters; Phylogenetic analysis of molecular data: alignment of DNA and protein sequences, Model-based analyzes (Bayesian Analysis and Likelihood Analysis); Applications of the methods, concepts and results of phylogenetic analysis in studies on biodiversity: testing of evolutionary scenarios, evolution of ecological and behavioral characters, diversity and conservation of lineages, spatial analysis of phylogenetic diversity, use of phylogenetic information in decisions on biodiversity conservation and addressing strategic issues (e.g. agriculture and health).

TPI: 6-0-12


Amorim, D. S. 2002. Fundamentos de sistemática filogenética. Editora Holos, Ribeirão Preto.

de Pinna, M. C. C. 1991. Concepts and tests of homology in the cladistic paradigm. Cladistics, 7:367-394.

Brooks, D. and McLennan, D. A. 1991. Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior: a research program in comparative biology. University of Chicago Press.

Farris, J. S. 1983. The logical basis of phylogenetic analysis. In: Platnick, N. I.; Flunk, V.A. (Eds.), Advances in cladistics, vol. 2, Columbia. University Press, New York, p.7-36.

Goloboff, P. A. 1993. Estimating character weights during tree search. Cladistics, 9:83-91.

Grandcolas, P. 1997. The Origin of Biodiversity in Insects: Phylogenetic Tests of Evolutionary Scenarios. Memoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 173.

Hennig, W. 1966 [1979]. Phylogenetic systematics. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Hull, D. L. 1988. Science as a process: an evolutionary account of the social and conceptual development of science. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Huson, D and Bryant, D. 2006. Applications of Phylogenetic Networks in Evolutionary Studies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2: 254-267.

Kitching, I. J.; Forey, P. L.; Humphries, C. J.; Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics: the theory and practice of parsimony analysis. Oxford University Press, second edition.

Nelson, G.; Platnick, N. I. 1981. Systematics and biogeography: cladistics and vicariance. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nixon, K. C.; Carpenter, J. M. 1993. On outgroups. Cladistics 9:413-426.

Schuh, R. T.; Brower, A. V. Z. 2009. Biological systematics: principles and applications. Cornell University Press, Ithaca

Wiley, E. O.; Lieberman, B. S. 2011. Phylogenetics: theory and practice of phylogenetic systematics, 2 ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken.

Williams, D. M.; Forey, P. L. 2004. Milestones in systematics. CRC Press.

EVD 004: Teaching Internship (MASTERS)

TPI: 2-0-0

EVD 005: Teaching Internship (DOCTORATE)

TPI: 2-0-0